how to plant red yuccak690

Red Yucca, scientifically known as Hesperaloe parviflora, is an attractive succulent plant widely cultivated for its vibrant red flowers and low maintenance requirements. If you’re interested in planting red yucca in your garden, it’s important to know the proper techniques to ensure its successful growth and blooming.

Choosing the right location for planting red yucca is crucial for its thriving. Consider the following factors:

  1. Sunlight Requirements: Red yucca thrives in full sun, so choose a location that receives at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight per day.
  2. Soil Conditions: The soil should be well-draining and slightly acidic to accommodate the plant’s needs.
  3. Climate Considerations: Red yucca is native to arid regions, so it prefers dry and hot climates with minimal rainfall.

Preparing the soil is an essential step in successful red yucca planting.

  1. Soil Testing and Analysis: Conduct a soil test to determine its pH level and nutrient composition. Red yucca prefers a slightly acidic soil with a pH range of 6.0-7.0.
  2. Soil Amendments: Based on the soil test results, amend the soil with organic matter or specific nutrients to improve its fertility and drainage.
  3. Drainage Considerations: Red yucca cannot tolerate waterlogged soil, so ensure proper drainage by incorporating coarse sand or perlite into the planting area.

When planting red yucca:

  1. Select healthy red yucca plants from a reputable nursery or garden center.
  2. Dig a planting hole that is slightly wider and deeper than the root ball of the plant.
  3. Place the red yucca in the hole, making sure it sits at the same level as it was in the container.
  4. Backfill the hole with amended soil, gently firming it around the root ball.
  5. Water the newly planted red yucca thoroughly to settle the soil and promote root establishment.

Caring for red yucca involves regular maintenance tasks:

  1. Watering: Red yucca is drought-tolerant once established, but during the first few weeks after planting, ensure regular watering to help the plant establish a strong root system.
  2. Mulching: Apply a layer of organic mulch around the base of the plant to conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, and regulate soil temperature.
  3. Fertilizing: Red yucca is considered a low-maintenance plant that doesn’t require heavy fertilization. However, a light application of balanced fertilizer in the spring can promote healthy growth.
  4. Pruning: Remove dead or damaged leaves and spent flower spikes to maintain the plant’s appearance and encourage new growth.
  5. Pest and Disease Control: Red yucca is generally resistant to pests and diseases, but occasional pests like aphids or snails can be controlled with organic methods if necessary.

Propagation of red yucca can be done through:

  1. Seeds: Collect mature seeds from the plant and sow them in well-draining soil during the spring.
  2. Division: Divide well-established clumps of red yucca, ensuring each division has a healthy root system.

By following these planting and care guidelines, you can enjoy the beauty of red yucca in your garden and create a visually stunning landscape element.

Choosing the Right Location for Planting Red Yucca

When it comes to planting red yucca, choosing the right location is key. To ensure the success of your garden, we’ll dive into the vital factors to consider: sunlight requirements, soil conditions, and climate considerations. Whether you’re aiming for a thriving display of vibrant blooms or a low-maintenance landscape addition, this section has all the insights you need to select the perfect spot for your red yucca. So, let’s get started on creating an optimal environment for these beautiful plants to thrive!

Sunlight Requirements

The sunlight requirements for red yucca are crucial for the plant’s growth and overall health. Here are key considerations to keep in mind:

  • Full Sun Exposure: Red yucca thrives in full sunlight, so it should be planted in an area that receives direct sunlight for at least 6 to 8 hours a day.
  • Avoiding Shade: Ensure that the red yucca is not shaded by buildings, trees, or other tall structures that may obstruct sunlight from reaching the plant.
  • South-Facing Location: If possible, choose a south-facing location for planting red yucca, as it will receive the maximum amount of sunlight throughout the day.
  • Minimal Shade Tolerance: Red yucca has low shade tolerance and may not thrive or produce vibrant blooms if not provided with adequate sunlight.
  • Protective Measures: In regions with excessively hot temperatures, provide some light shade during the hottest part of the day to prevent sunburn on the leaves.

By considering these sunlight requirements, you can ensure that your red yucca plant receives the optimal amount of sunlight necessary for its growth and aesthetics.

Soil Conditions

When it comes to planting red yucca, it is important to consider the soil conditions. There are several key factors to keep in mind:

  1. Type of soil: Red yucca prefers sandy or loamy soil that drains well. It can tolerate a wide range of soil pH levels, from acidic to alkaline.
  2. Moisture levels: Red yucca is drought-tolerant and does not require excessive moisture. It thrives in slightly dry and well-drained soil.
  3. Soil fertility: Red yucca can adapt to different levels of soil fertility. However, for optimum growth and flowering, a moderately fertile soil with organic matter is recommended.
  4. Soil composition: Good aeration is preferred by red yucca. Clay soil should be improved with organic matter or sand for better drainage.
  5. Soil compaction: Adequate space for root growth and expansion is needed for red yucca. It is best to avoid planting in compacted soil, as it can inhibit root development and hinder growth.
  6. Soil temperature: Red yucca can tolerate a wide range of temperatures but prefers warm soil. Ensure that the soil has warmed up enough before planting.

By taking these soil conditions into consideration, you can create an ideal growing environment for red yucca, promoting healthy growth and vibrant flowering.

Climate Considerations

When considering climate factors for planting red yucca, it’s important to keep in mind the specific conditions this plant prefers. Here are some climate considerations to take into account:

  1. Sunlight: Red yucca thrives in full sun and requires at least six hours of direct sunlight each day.
  2. Temperature: This plant is highly tolerant of heat and drought, making it suitable for areas with hot and arid climates.
  3. Hardiness: Red yucca is a resilient plant that can withstand a wide range of temperatures. It is winter hardy in USDA hardiness zones 5 to 11.
  4. Rainfall: While red yucca can tolerate drought conditions, it still requires occasional watering. It is well-suited for regions with moderate rainfall.
  5. Humidity: This plant can tolerate both low and high humidity levels, making it adaptable to a variety of climates.

When planting red yucca, it’s essential to choose a location that provides the ideal climate conditions. Ensure the plant receives ample sunlight, and consider the temperature range, hardiness zone, rainfall patterns, and humidity levels in your area.

By considering these climate factors, you can ensure the successful growth and long-term health of your red yucca plants.

Preparing the Soil for Planting Red Yucca

Want your red yucca to thrive? It all starts with preparing the soil. In this section, we’ll uncover the secrets to create the perfect foundation for planting Red Yucca. From soil testing and analysis to choosing the right amendments, as well as ensuring proper drainage, we’ll explore everything you need to know to give your Red Yucca the best possible start. Get ready to learn the essential steps for soil preparation and watch your yucca flourish in no time!

Soil Testing and Analysis

Soil testing and analysis are vital steps in preparing the soil for planting red yucca. They provide valuable information about the soil condition and help determine the necessary amendments for optimal growth. To perform a soil test, samples can be collected from different areas of the planting site to ensure a representative sample. Once the samples are collected, they can be taken to a local agricultural extension office or analyzed using a soil testing kit to determine the soil’s composition.

During the analysis, various factors such as pH levels, nutrient content, and soil texture are assessed. The pH level indicates whether the soil is acidic, neutral, or alkaline, while nutrient analysis reveals the levels of essential elements like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Soil texture is also important as it affects drainage and root penetration.

Based on the results of the soil testing and analysis, appropriate amendments can be determined to improve the soil conditions for red yucca. This may involve adding organic matter such as compost or aged manure to enhance soil fertility and structure. Additionally, adjusting pH levels by adding lime or sulfur may be necessary.

By conducting soil testing and analysis, the best possible growing conditions can be provided for red yucca plants, ensuring their long-term health and vitality.

Soil testing and analysis have been crucial practices in agriculture for centuries. Farmers and gardeners have recognized the significance of understanding the soil’s composition and fertility to optimize crop yields and plant health. Modern advancements in soil science have made soil testing and analysis more accurate and accessible, providing valuable insights into nutrient deficiencies, pH imbalances, and other soil conditions that can significantly impact plant growth. By utilizing soil testing and analysis techniques, growers can make informed decisions about soil amendments and management practices, leading to more successful and sustainable plant cultivation.

Soil Amendments

Soil amendments are an important aspect of preparing the soil for planting Red Yucca. They help improve the soil quality and provide essential nutrients for the plant’s growth. Below is a table outlining different types of soil amendments and their benefits:

Type of Soil Amendment Benefit
Compost Enhances soil structure and fertility, improves water retention
Manure Increases soil fertility and adds organic matter
Peat Moss Improves soil aeration and water drainage
Perlite Enhances soil drainage and aeration
Vermiculite Improves moisture retention and soil structure

These soil amendments can be mixed into the existing soil before planting Red Yucca. It is important to follow the recommended guidelines for the amount of soil amendment to be added based on the size of the planting area.

When incorporating soil amendments, ensure that they are evenly distributed and thoroughly mixed with the soil. This will promote healthy root development and optimize nutrient uptake for the Bird of Paradise.

Remember, different soil types may require specific soil amendments. It is recommended to perform a soil test to identify any deficiencies or imbalances in the soil composition before adding soil amendments. This will help determine the appropriate type and quantity of soil amendment needed.

By incorporating the right soil amendments, you can create an optimal growing environment for Red Yucca, leading to healthier and more vibrant plants.

So, make sure to consider the soil amendments and their benefits while preparing the soil for planting Red Yucca.

Drainage Considerations

When considering drainage for planting red yucca, it is important to take certain factors into consideration:

  1. Evaluating soil permeability: Check the soil’s ability to allow water to pass through. Sandy or loamy soils tend to drain quickly, while clay soils retain moisture for longer periods.

  2. Assessing slope and elevation: Choose a location with adequate slope to ensure that water drains away from the plant’s roots. Avoid low-lying areas where water can pool.

  3. Improving drainage through soil amendments: If the soil tends to retain water, incorporate organic matter such as compost or peat moss to improve drainage.

  4. Creating raised beds or mounds: If natural drainage is inadequate, consider planting red yucca in raised beds or mounds to ensure better drainage.

  5. Adding drainage channels or pipes: In areas with poor drainage, it may be necessary to install drainage channels or pipes to direct excess water away from the plant’s roots.

By considering these drainage considerations, you can ensure that your red yucca plants have the appropriate moisture levels to thrive.

Planting Red Yucca

Planting Red Yucca is an exciting adventure awaiting both experienced gardeners and beginners alike. We’ll dive into the essentials of this process, from selecting healthy Red Yucca plants to watering the newly planted ones. So, get ready to dig deep, fill the soil, and watch your vibrant Red Yucca flourish in your garden. Let’s get our hands dirty and transform our outdoor spaces into stunning havens of natural beauty.

Selecting Healthy Red Yucca Plants

When selecting healthy red yucca plants for planting, it is important to consider the following factors:

  • Appearance: Look for red yucca plants with vibrant, green leaves that are free from any discoloration or spots. Avoid plants with wilted or yellowing leaves.
  • Size: Choose plants that are of a suitable size for your planting area. Avoid small, weak-looking plants as they may struggle to establish themselves.
  • Root System: Check the root system of the plant by gently removing it from its container. Look for healthy, well-developed roots that are not too crowded or coiled.
  • Stem and Trunk: Inspect the stem and trunk of the plant for any signs of damage or disease. It should be sturdy and free from any cracks or lesions.
  • Pests and Diseases: Examine the plant for any signs of pests or diseases, such as insects or fungal growth. Select plants that are pest-free and disease-resistant.
  • Source: Purchase red yucca plants from a reputable nursery or garden center to ensure quality and healthy plants.

By considering these factors, you can ensure that you are selecting healthy red yucca plants that have the best chance of thriving in your garden.

Digging the Planting Hole

When digging the planting hole for red yucca, it is important to follow these steps:

  1. First, choose the location where you want to plant the red yucca.
  2. Next, use a shovel or garden spade to dig a hole that is 2-3 times wider than the root ball of the plant.
  3. Make sure that the depth of the hole is equal to the height of the root ball.
  4. To improve drainage, loosen the soil at the bottom of the hole.
  5. Remove any rocks or debris that you find in the hole.
  6. If the soil is compacted, you can break it up using a garden fork.
  7. Now, place the red yucca plant in the center of the hole.
  8. Ensure that the top of the root ball is level with the surrounding soil.
  9. Gently backfill the hole with the soil you removed, being careful to firm it around the roots.
  10. Give the newly planted red yucca a thorough watering to help settle the soil.
  11. To conserve moisture, apply a layer of mulch around the base of the plant.
  12. Remember to water the red yucca regularly, especially during dry periods.
  13. Avoid overwatering, as red yucca prefers slightly dry conditions.

By following these steps, you can ensure that the red yucca plant is properly planted and has the best chance of thriving.

Placing Red Yucca in the Hole

When placing red yucca in the hole, follow these steps to ensure proper planting:

  1. Choose a healthy red yucca plant for planting.
  2. Dig a hole that is wide and deep enough to accommodate the plant’s root ball.
  3. Gently place the red yucca plant into the hole, ensuring that it is in an upright position.
  4. Backfill the hole with soil, taking care not to damage the plant’s roots.
  5. Tamp the soil firmly around the plant to remove air pockets and provide stability.
  6. Water the newly planted red yucca thoroughly to settle the soil and moisten the roots.

By following these steps, you can properly place the red yucca plant in the hole and promote its successful growth.

Backfilling and Tamping the Soil

Backfilling and tamping the soil is an essential step in planting red yucca. Follow these steps to ensure proper soil placement and compaction.

1. After placing the red yucca plant in the planting hole, begin backfilling the soil around it.

2. Use your hands or a small garden shovel to gently fill the hole with soil.

3. Add the soil gradually, ensuring that there are no air pockets around the roots.

4. As you backfill, lightly tamp the soil down using your hands or a tamper.

5. Continue this process until the hole is completely filled and the plant sits securely in the soil.

6. Pay attention to the soil level, making sure it is even with the surrounding ground.

7. After backfilling and tamping, water the newly planted red yucca thoroughly to help settle the soil further.

Proper backfilling and soil compaction are crucial for establishing a stable foundation for the red yucca plant to grow. Remember to avoid over-tamping the soil, as excessive compaction can restrict root growth and drainage.

By following these steps, you can ensure that your red yucca is planted in well-settled soil, providing a solid base for healthy root development and growth.

Remember, proper backfilling and soil tamping are important for the success of your red yucca plant.

Watering the Newly Planted Red Yucca

Watering the newly planted Red Yucca is an important step to ensure its proper establishment and growth.

  1. Step 1: After planting the Red Yucca, give it a thorough watering. This will help settle the soil around the root ball and remove any air pockets.
  2. Step 2: Check the moisture level of the soil regularly to determine when to water. Insert your finger into the soil up to the second knuckle. If it feels dry, it’s time to water.
  3. Step 3: Water the newly planted Red Yucca deeply and slowly to ensure that the water reaches the roots. Aim to moisten the soil to a depth of at least 6 inches.
  4. Step 4: Avoid over-watering, as Red Yuccas are drought-tolerant plants. They prefer slightly dry soil rather than constantly wet conditions.
  5. Step 5: During the first few weeks after planting, monitor the newly planted Red Yucca closely. If you notice any wilting or signs of stress, provide extra water to prevent dehydration.
  6. Step 6: Adjust the watering frequency according to the weather conditions. In hot and dry periods, you may need to water the newly planted Red Yucca more frequently.

Remember to always water the newly planted Red Yucca in the morning or early evening to minimize evaporation and allow the foliage to dry before nightfall, preventing the risk of fungal diseases.

Caring for Red Yucca

Looking to keep your Red Yucca thriving and vibrant? Dive into the world of caring for Red Yucca plants with expert tips and tricks. From watering techniques to pruning methods, we will cover it all in this section. Get ready to learn how to provide the optimal care that will ensure your Red Yucca flourishes in your garden. Say goodbye to wilting and hello to healthy, beautiful plants!


The watering of red yucca is vital for its growth and overall well-being. Here are some essential considerations:

  1. Frequently: Water newly planted red yucca regularly for the first few weeks to establish a robust root system. After that, water it deeply but sparingly, allowing the soil to dry out between watering sessions.
  2. Quantity: Provide sufficient water to thoroughly moisten the soil, reaching the root zone. Avoid overwatering, as excessive moisture can cause root rot.
  3. Timing: Water red yucca in the early morning or late afternoon to minimize evaporation and give the plant ample time to dry before evening.
  4. Rainwater: Utilize natural rainfall as much as possible. Evaluate the amount of rain received and adjust watering accordingly.
  5. Drought-tolerant: Once established, red yucca is highly resistant to drought. Reduce watering during periods of heavy rainfall or high humidity to prevent excessive moisture.
  6. Container-grown plants: Monitor the moisture level in the soil of potted red yucca. Water when the top inch of soil feels dry.
  7. Seasonal adjustments: Decrease watering during the winter months when the plant is dormant and requires less moisture. Increase watering during hot, dry periods.
  8. Watering method: Use a soaker hose or drip irrigation system to deliver water directly to the root zone, minimizing water loss through evaporation.

Adhering to proper watering practices will ensure the vitality and longevity of your red yucca plants.


Mulching is an essential and integral step in the care of red yucca plants. It provides numerous benefits that contribute to their overall health and growth.

  • Conservation of moisture: One of the most significant advantages of mulching is its ability to retain soil moisture, ensuring that it does not evaporate too quickly. This characteristic is particularly beneficial for red yucca plants that thrive in dry and arid conditions. By applying a layer of mulch around the plants’ base, water loss is minimized, and the soil remains consistently moist.
  • Weed suppression: Mulch serves as an effective barrier against weeds, preventing their germination and growth. This barrier helps to limit the competition for nutrients and water between the red yucca plants and the weeds. Consequently, the need for frequent weeding is reduced, enabling the red yucca plants to grow more vigorously.
  • Temperature regulation: Acting as a natural insulation, mulch provides protection to the roots of the red yucca plants against extreme temperatures. During hot weather, it keeps the soil cooler, while in cold weather, it helps to maintain a warmer environment. These temperature-regulating properties create a more favorable condition for the growth of the red yucca plants.
  • Soil improvement: Over time, organic mulch gradually decomposes and incorporates valuable organic matter into the soil. This process contributes to enhancing the soil structure, fertility, and capacity to retain essential nutrients. Consequently, the red yucca plants experience enhanced and healthy growth.

Pro-tip: While mulching around red yucca plants, it is important to leave a small gap around the base of each plant. This gap prevents the accumulation of moisture, which can potentially lead to root rot. Additionally, organic mulches such as wood chips or shredded leaves are highly recommended as they release nutrients into the soil as they break down over time.


When fertilizing red yucca plants, there are several important factors to consider:

  1. Timing: Fertilize red yucca plants in the early spring, just before new growth begins. This will provide them with the essential nutrients they need as they start their active growing season.
  2. Type of fertilizer: Use a balanced, slow-release fertilizer specifically formulated for succulent plants. This will ensure a steady release of nutrients over time and prevent the risk of nutrient burn.
  3. Application: Apply the fertilizer evenly around the base of the plant, avoiding direct contact with the foliage. Follow the instructions on the fertilizer packaging for the correct application rate.
  4. Frequency: Fertilize red yucca plants once every 4-6 weeks during the growing season. Be careful not to over-fertilize, as this can lead to excessive foliage growth and reduced flowering.
  5. Watering: After applying the fertilizer, thoroughly water the plant to help the nutrients penetrate the soil and reach the plant’s roots. This will ensure proper uptake of the nutrients.
  6. Monitoring: Keep an eye on the plant for any signs of nutrient deficiencies or excesses. Yellowing leaves may indicate a lack of nitrogen, while brown or scorched tips could be a result of too much fertilizer.
  7. Adjustment: If necessary, adjust the fertilizer application based on the specific needs of your red yucca plant. Soil and nutrient requirements can vary, so it’s important to monitor the plant’s response and make any necessary adjustments.


When it comes to pruning red yucca, there are a few important steps to follow:

  1. Start by examining the red yucca plant and identifying any dead or damaged leaves or stems.
  2. Using clean pruning shears, make cuts close to the base of the plant, removing any dead or damaged foliage.
  3. Next, look for any overcrowded or crossing stems. These can interfere with the growth and health of the plant. Choose the weakest stem and cut it back to its base.
  4. To maintain a more compact and tidy appearance, you can also trim back any leggy or overly long stems. Cut them back to a more desirable length, keeping the overall shape of the plant in mind.
  5. It’s important to disinfect your pruning shears between cuts to prevent the spread of diseases. You can use a solution of 1 part bleach to 9 parts water or rubbing alcohol to clean the blades.
  6. Dispose of the pruned plant material properly, either by composting or throwing it away, to prevent any potential disease or pest issues.

By following these steps, you can ensure that your red yucca plant remains healthy and well-maintained. Regular pruning can help stimulate new growth and keep the plant looking its best.

Pest and Disease Control

When it comes to pest and disease control for red yucca plants, there are several measures you can take to keep your plants healthy:

  1. Regular inspection: It is important to regularly inspect your red yucca plants for any signs of pests or diseases. Take a close look for discoloration, spots, wilting leaves, or any unusual growth.
  2. Remove affected leaves: If you happen to notice any leaves that exhibit signs of pest infestation or disease, promptly remove them from the plant. This proactive action will prevent the condition from spreading further.
  3. Natural remedies: Utilizing natural remedies such as neem oil or insecticidal soap can effectively control pests like aphids or spider mites. Apply the remedies as per the provided instructions on the product.
  4. Preventive measures: To deter pests from reaching the plant, you can apply a layer of mulch around the base. Additionally, maintaining good garden hygiene and removing fallen leaves or debris can significantly reduce the risk of pests and diseases.
  5. Watering schedule: Proper watering is crucial for maintaining plant health. Avoid overwatering, as it can create a favorable environment for pests and diseases. Water the plant deeply but infrequently, ensuring the soil dries out between waterings.

By diligently following these pest and disease control practices, you can ensure that your red yucca plants thrive without being compromised by pests or diseases.

Propagation of Red Yucca

Red Yucca, a hardy plant that can adapt to various soil types, can be easily propagated through division or from seed. For successful propagation of Red Yucca, it is best to do so during the spring or early summer when the plant is actively growing. To propagate through division, carefully dig up the mature plant and separate the clumps into smaller sections, ensuring that each section contains a crown and roots. Plant these divisions in well-draining soil, making sure that the crown is slightly above the soil level. Thoroughly water the divisions and keep the soil moist until new growth appears.

Propagating Red Yucca from seed is also a possibility. Collect and sow the seeds in a well-prepared seed-starting mix. Place the seeds in a warm and bright location and maintain consistent moisture in the soil. It typically takes around two to four weeks for germination to occur. Once the seedlings have developed several leaves, transplant them into individual containers. Gradually acclimate the seedlings to outdoor conditions before planting them in the garden.

To ensure successful propagation, it is important to choose a location that receives full sun for planting the Red Yucca divisions or seedlings. Regular watering is necessary during the establishment phase, but once mature, these plants are drought-tolerant. Keep a regular check for pests and diseases and take appropriate measures to control them. While Red Yucca can adapt to various soil types, it is crucial to plant them in well-drained soil to prevent root rot. By following these simple steps, you can easily propagate Red Yucca and enjoy the beauty of its flowers in your garden.

Always handle your Red Yucca plants with care during propagation and provide them with proper watering and care for their healthy growth and development.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. How do I plant red yucca in my garden?

Answer: To plant red yucca, choose a sunny location in your garden with well-drained soil. Dig a hole that is slightly larger than the root ball of the plant. Place the red yucca in the hole, backfill with soil, and firm it gently around the plant. Water thoroughly after planting.

2. What are the care requirements for red yucca?

Answer: Red yucca is a low-maintenance plant that is drought-tolerant. Once established, it requires very little water. It thrives in full sun and well-drained soil. Red yucca plants can benefit from a light application of all-purpose fertilizer once or twice a year. Pruning is not necessary, but you can cut them back in late winter or early spring to encourage new growth.

3. What are the different colors of flowers that red yucca can produce?

Answer: Red yucca produces tubular flowers with trumpet-shaped flared tips. The flowers can be pale pink, coral, salmon-pink, red, or yellow. They typically bloom from spring through summer and can attract hummingbirds.

4. Can I grow red yucca in containers?

Answer: Yes, red yucca can be grown in containers. Start with small containers and transplant the seedlings into larger ones as they grow. Make sure the containers have good drainage and use a well-draining soil mix. Water the plants sparingly as they are drought-tolerant.

5. How long does it take for red yucca to start flowering?

Answer: Red yucca plants can take 4 to 5 years to start producing flowers. Once they start blooming, the flowers can last throughout the growing season and attract hummingbirds.

6. Where can I buy red yucca plants?

Answer: Red yucca plants are widely available at nurseries and retail garden centers, especially in Texas. There are also online plant retailers that offer red yucca plants for purchase.

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